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WEAVERS OF 

THE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS: 

EARLY YEARS IN GATLINBURG 



by Philis ALVIC 
Artist/Weaver 
Murray, KY 
©1991 




funded jJn <Pazt % Db 

Tennessee and Kentucky 
Humanities Councils 

and tkz cyXatlonaL dZnaoojmznt 
toi -JriE, c^Tuman.Liiz± 



S"2^ 




Consultants 

Geography: J. E. Dobson, Ph.D. 
Folklore: Robert (Roby) Cogswell, Ph.D 
Education: Gary Schroeder, Ph.D. 



The story of weaving in Gatlinburg in the early part 
of the 1900's has two major strands and is joined by a 
third thread toward the middle of the century. Weaving 
was a part of Pi Beta Phi Settlement school. And weaving 
was the major cottage industry promoted by the 
Arrowcraft Shop which was started by the school. Later, 
weaving was a significant part of the Summer Craft 
Workshop that grew into the Arrowmont School of Arts 
and Crafts . 

The March, 1916, Arrow , the Pi Beta Phi 
newsletter, in an article about Gatlinburg observed, "in the 
'yesteryears' this country was a community of weavers, 
but after the war, 'store cloth' was cheap so that one 
woman after another put the old loom aside." The passing 
of weaving skills from one generation to the next had not 
continued within families. The revival of handweaving 
came about because there was again a reason to weave. 
Household fabric needs could be met other ways and 
people were willing to pay for the products of the loom. 



THE PI BETA PHI SCHOOL 

In 1912 a school convened near the confluence of 
Baskins Creek and the Little Pigeon River in the small 
village of Gatlinburg, TN. The women of the Pi Beta Phi 
Fraternity had decided at their 1910 Convention in 
Swarthmore, PA, on an educational philanthropic project 
among 'mountain whites.' ( Arrow. 1910) The 

Washington Alumnae Club had submitted a proposition 
that the school be initiated, and dedicated on the 50th 
anniversary of the founding of the fraternity in honor of 
their founders. The Pi Phis by starting a school joined the 
larger settlement school movement active in the southern 
Appalachian mountains. By 1920, religious denom- 
inations had established most of the over 150 social 
settlement schools within the highlands of eight southern 

1 



states. 

In the summer of 1910 a committee of three 
women, Emma Turner, May Keller, and Anna Pettit, 
investigated sites for the school. The Grand President, 
May Lansfield Keller, went on alone to Gatlinburg, after 
the three had visited several eastern Tennessee 
communities. She reported back to the membership that 
this was the ideal situation. "Illiteracy is perhaps not so 
bad as represented, but the advantages for higher work are 
nil, and household economies, scientific farming, etc. are 
unknown quantities." ( Arrow . January, 1911) 

During this trip to the mountains, Anna Pettit 
stopped at Allanstand Cottage Industries near Asheville, 
NC. She was "amazed at the skill shown in weaving and 
basket work among the work for sale by the 
'mountaineers."" ( Arrow . November, 1910) The seed 
was sown very early for wider work that might be done by 
the Pi Phis. 

The objectives of the school, as stated by the 
settlement school committee, in a report to the greater Pi 
Beta Phi membership, were— 

"What we wish to do is to join in the effort to 
show them how to use their own resources, to 
develop industries suitable to their environment, 
and to lead more happy, healthful lives. We 
want to help, insofar as we can, to educate 
mountain boys and girls back to their homes 
instead of away from them. ( Arrow. April, 
1912) 

Early on it was realized that helping the children 
also meant helping their families. Health needs and 
methods for families to earn a cash supplement to their 
subsistence farming became some of the major concerns. 
Within the first year of the school's operation, a part-time 



nurse joined the staff. This service soon expanded into a 
full health clinic. 

The economic problem did not present such a direct 
solution. In 1915 the head teacher Mary O. Pollard 
observed that "Many of the women make exquisite 
patchwork quilts, and some still make the hand woven 
coverlets and blankets. If a sale could be found for these 
articles, many might undertake the work." ( Arrow . 
March, 1915) Within the year Caroline McKnight Hughes 
came to engage in 'business and industrial work." She 
was typical of the teachers in that she was a Pi Phi and had 
received degrees from northern schools — the University 
of Minnesota, Cooper-Union in New York City and 
teacher training from Prang Normal School. 

Notice appeared in the Arrow of the first loom 
appearing at the school during 1915, with the prospect of 
three more looms to be donated by the Springfield, MO, 
Pi Phis. A 1916 profile of Hughes said she was 
"instrumental in reviving among the older women that 
almost forgotten art of spinning and weaving." ( Arrow . 
March, 1916) To encourage interest in the craft, she 
organized a Spinning Bee with prizes. 

A financial report of the time explained 
unanticipated expenses as the need to pay weavers and 
other 'industrial' workers for their products. The workers 
did not understand the concept of the school acting as an 
agent and consigning goods for later sale. Because they 
demanded immediate pay for work, the school, in fact, 
became their employer. 

By the early twenties the school had grown from 14 
pupils to over 130, with five teachers in attendance. The 
teachers were Pi Phis from all over the country who lived 
in the Teachers' Cottage on the school grounds. Some of 
the students also boarded at the school, in dormitories. 

Caroline Hughes only supervised weaving for a 
couple of years. Other teachers also taught for short 
periods of time , with Mr. and Mrs. Norman Pickett 



assuming 'industrial' duties for the longest stretch. By 
1924 a former student, Allie Ownby, headed the weaving. 

The Pi Phi Annual Report for 1924 contained the 
information that the Fireside Industries was paying for 
itself and suggested that new designs were needed for the 
weaving. Baskets were the most abundant and best sellers 
of the products offered, with chairs and stools also 
produced. The term "Fireside Industries" was a very 
popular term referring to several craft makers producing 
items in their own homes for cooperative sale. 

The Pi Phis educated the children of the Gatlinburg 
area, with increasing state and county financial aid being 
infused, until the school system was entirely transferred to 
local control in 1966. At that time, the new elementary 
school was named the Pi Beta Phi School in appreciation 
of the work of the fraternity. 

Even though the major thread of this tale will now 
pick up, it is important to remember that weaving did 
continue at the school. Upper elementary grades and 
some high school students took weaving. Sometimes 
Arrowcraft weaving supervisors taught the classes, but 
more frequently the responsibility was given to another 
teacher, often a former student. 



ARROWCRAFT 

Weaving in the Gatlinburg area entered a new 
phase in 1925 with the arrival of Winogene Redding from 
Wollaston, Massachusetts. Gene later described her first 
interview with Miss Evelyn Bishop, the school director. 

"She said I was to teach weaving. My next 
question was 'how and to whom,' and she 
left me to my own devices when she said I 
was to find my job and make it." (Arrow , 
September, 1945) 



And, she did 'make it.' She rounded up about a 
dozen weavers almost immediately, and had them 
weaving her designs or new color combinations of 
patterns they had known In less than a year, Redding had 
recruited 30 women to weave, had rejuvenated the school 
weaving program and had even inspired most of the 
teachers to take up weaving after their classroom duties 
were finished. 

The Arrow Craft Shop became a separate entity in 
1926, with its own space in Stuart Cottage on the school 
grounds. The name was drawn from the Pi Beta Phi arrow 
symbol. Previously, sales of items took place from the 
basement of one of the school buildings, while the storage 
and shipping happened in any available place. In the new 
shop, the furniture, baskets and woven goods were 
attractively displayed around a stone fireplace, or on an 
historic bed, or in other decorative arrangements. In May, 
the first month of operation, sales reached almost 
$1,000.00, about three times the amount recorded for the 
same month the previous year. 

Winogene Redding established a way of working 
with weavers that has persisted with only slight revisions 
through the years and other supervisors. After she 
designed an item, the weaver learned it in her own home 
under Gene's direction. The first year of operation, Gene 
walked from one weaver's home to another, but she 
switched to horseback as more distant weavers became 
involved with the program. The school supplied materials 
that were later charged against the finished products. 
Furnishing good yarns was one of the methods of quality 
control. On the average, twice a month a weaver 
presented completed items to the supervisor to be 
checked for craftsmanship. 

Handweaving is a slow process. Weaving is the 
interlacing of two elements; the warp, or vertical yarns are 
crossed at right angles by the weft or filler. Before the 
actual weaving can begin, the loom must be set up. The 




Ainer Maples at the loom, while 
Mary L. Ownby and Winogene Redding watch 

first step in dressing the loom is to measure warp threads 
so they are all of equal length. At Arrowcraft this was 
done by winding the yarn around widely spaced pegs. 
Family members commonly helped each other wind 
warps. On the loom the yarn passes through a reed that 
spaces the yarn at a set number of threads per inch. The 
yarn then proceeds through a heddle on a pattern harness. 
When this mechanism is raised during the weaving 
process by different foot pedal or treadling sequences, 
different patterns are created. The warp is stored around a 
back beam on the loom and brought forward when needed. 
Since loom dressing is always a time consuming process, 
the Arrowcraft weavers put on very long warps of 80 to 
120 yards. The preparation time was thus spread over 
many finished items. The weaver also usually did the 
hemming, knotting fringe or other construction required to 
make a finished article. 



From its inception, the Arrow Craft Shop did not 
supply items for local consumption. Tourists were the 
walk-in purchasers. Pi Phi sales have also always been 
substantial. Fraternity members bought an array of 
products offered in the Arrow newsletter. And, Con- 
vention sales and organized sales events sponsored by 
Alumnae Clubs accounted for a significant volume. Also, 
in the mid-1930's, a catalog began to offer items to mail 
order customers. Because of this diverse clientele, many 
goods were woven that never would have appeared in a 
mountain cabin, such as place mats, or decorative guest 
towels. The designer attempted to supply items that 
would be attractive and useful to the women who 
purchased them. 

For the most part, there was no need for a specific 
marketing strategy, because the items were well designed, 
of good quality materials, and carefully crafted. Products 
were not represented as authentic mountain crafts, but as 
produced by mountain people. Implied with a sale was 
the good a buyer was doing. As Gene Redding wrote, 
"We want those who buy our weaving to realize that they 
are not buying just an article, but that they are supplying 
some woman with contentment and perhaps food; they are 
helping us to work out an economic problem of 
widespread influence for progress; they are helping to 
keep the Arrow Craft Shop and the Weaving Department 
in the community..." ( Arrow. May. 1928) This approach 
especially appealed to the Pi Phis who always felt great 
ownership for 'their' school. 

By 1929, the shop found it necessary to operate 
year-round, and it moved into the original school cottage 
located near the intersection of Baskins Creek with the 
main road through town. The site proved an excellent 
location, and successive shop expansions have replaced 
the early building. 

Big changes were in store for Gatlinburg when the 
idea of Great Smoky Mountains National Park became a 



reality. By the late twenties a highway connected 
Gatlinburg to Knoxville. Land was bought and people 
were moved out of the Park area. A branch of the Pi Beta 
Phi School at Sugarlands (now the site of a National Park 
Visitor's Center) was forced to close. In the early 
Depression years, local men worked on a rotating basis, 
developing roads and trails within the Park. The town was 
hardly ready for the thousands and eventually millions of 
tourists that stopped in Gatlinburg on their way to the 
Smoky Mountains National Park. After many years of 
development, the Park was dedicated by Franklin D. 
Roosevelt in 1944. 

The Mountain View Hotel received a new addition 
in preparation for the expected visitors, which included a 
branch of the Arrowcraft Shop, like the Baskins Creek 
shop, this location also had a loom in the display area. 
Since most people have only scant knowledge of how 
cloth is made, the loom served as an educational tool. 
Besides satisfying the curious, the description of the 
complex process of setting up the loom and weaving the 
fabric helped to explain the higher cost of the hand 
produced work. 

Who were the weavers of Arrowcraft? Looking 
down earnings lists, they are women with the names of 
Clabo, Carver, Husky, Maples, McCarter, Ogle, Ownby, 
Reagan, and Watson — Gatlinburg names. Less common 
names appear, too. But, since most of these would have 
been married names, exact family lines cannot be drawn. 
Gene Redding is reported to have said that she couldn't 
say anything about anybody, because everyone was kin. 

A summary in 1945 showed 242 different women 
weaving for Arrowcraft within the ten previous years. 
The Bureau of the Census listed the population of 
Gatlinburg at 15 in 1930, with growth to 1300 by 1940. 
The relocation of families out of the National Park area 
caused the rapid increase. The 1950 census data shows 
only one person added, to make 1301. 

8 




Winogene Redding picking up finished work from 
weavers, Mary L. Own by and Cora Morton 



Even given that many of the weavers lived outside the 
boundaries of the town, this was still a remarkable number 
of women weaving within a small area. With the increase 
in tourists brought by the Park, other establishments in 
Gatlinburg also sold handweaving. Allen Eaton, in his 
1937 book Handicrafts of The Southern Highlands, remarks 
on the other concerns in the area. "Among these outlets 
for weaving in Gatlinburg at this time are Mary F. Ogle, 
Wiley's Shop, Smoky Mountain Handicrafts, M & O Tea 
Room, Bearskin Craft Shop, Mrs. Amos Trentham, and 
the LeConte Craft Shop." Almost all of these other 
weavers can be assumed to have received training from 
Arrowcraft or the Pi Phi school. 

During those years from 1935 to 1945, 104 babies 
were born to Arrowcraft weavers. In a ledger denoting 
wages from that time, often "baby" was written as 
explanation for a low yearly gross. A rule restricted 
women from weaving within two months of the birth and 
extending to two months after. During the first 20 years 
of Arrowcraft, mothers with children at home formed 
most of the workforce. As Arrowcraft grew older, so did 
the average age of their weavers. Two and sometimes 
even three generations of the same family wove for 
Arrowcraft. 

When queried about their reason for weaving, the 
women always answered that it was a way for them to 
make money. A 1928 article by Redding reported on how 
some of those extra funds were put to use... 

"We have noticed in the past two years that 
the children from these homes come to 
school better dressed; the homes are 
gradually becoming better furnished, 
especially in the matter of Victrolas; the 
women themselves wear winter coats 
instead of their sweaters; they have more 
pleasure than ever before because they now 



10 



have money for an occasional trip to 
Sevierville and Knoxville. " ( Arrow , May, 
1928) 

During those major years of production, 1935- 
1945, there never were less than 90 weavers on the rolls. 
The total earnings indicate rather modest yearly totals for 
each weaver. In all of those years, half of the weavers 
made below $150.00, with only a relatively small few 
getting above $300.00 a year. Of course, it should be 
remembered that this was a part-time job, and a part-of- 
the-year activity for almost all of them. Roughly half of 
the weavers worked six months or less with only very few 
getting a check in all of the 12 months. 

In the mid forties, the federal government requested 
Arrowcraft to prove compliance with hourly minimum 
wage laws. In 1946 and 1947, a major study recorded 
warp preparation, actual weaving time and finishing, in 
order to calculate an hourly figure. Most weavers in the 
sample group of 40 were found to earn between 45 and 50 
cents an hour. At this time, the minimum hourly wage 
was 40 cents an hour. Of course, the speed of the 
individual weaver was the principle factor. Cora Morton 
made 42 cents an hour producing the Whig Rose mats, 
while her daughter Jane could produce them at a rate of 46 
cents. 

Another advantage of weaving was that women 
could stay at home with their children. They enjoyed the 
flexibility of deciding their own work schedule. And, 
among those that have continued on with it, they say that 
they would not like the idea of having a boss. They do 
not want someone standing directly over them telling 
them what to do. 

What were all those weavers weaving? In 1945 
Gene Redding wrote that she had "designed 246 different 
woven articles in hundreds of colors" within the past ten 
years. (Arrow . September, 1945) Not all of these items 

11 



were available at one time. New articles were constantly 
being added, while the less popular ones were dropped. 

In production were aprons, bags, bibs, baby 
blankets, bed jackets, bath mats, neckties, pillows, place 
mats (most with matching napkins), pot holders, scarves, 
shawls, and guest towels. Within each item category 
many separate designs and color variations appeared. In 
the nine years from 1936 to 1944, five different baby bibs 
were woven while place mats were offered in 17 choices. 
During those nine years, 13,580 baby bibs were produced. 
For the same time period, the number of place mats woven 
in the ever popular Whig Rose pattern came to 16,332. In 
contrast to the staggering production numbers for small 
items were the 207 coverlets. Considering that coverlets 
resided at the high end in time, materials and final cost, 
this number, too, was substantial. 

A pricing sheet from 1946 gives the sales price of 
the fringed Whig Rose Mat as $1.25. The materials costs 
were $.18 and the weaver received $.38. At this time, a 
bib sold for $.75, with the weaver getting $.35 and using 
only $.05 worth of yarn. A coverlet which brought $40.00 
at final sale, used $10.25 in materials, with $12.00 going 
to the weaver. Most of the prices listed were about double 
the sum of materials and labor costs. This at first seems 
standard, and would be if only shop overhead and profit 
came out of the remaining half of the retail price. 
Actually, the budget for the designer, her staff and their 
expenses should have been calculated in as part of the 
production costs, before that number was doubled to 
determine the sales figure. 

By the fall of 1932 monthly weavers' meetings 
became officially organized under the name of the 
Gatlinburg Weavers Guild. Besides the central programs, 
meetings were very social get-togethers, with shaped-note 
singing and refreshments. Speakers presented programs 
on gardening, household management, subjects relating to 
the growth of the area, and, of course, weaving -related 

12 



topics. A major incentive to attend the meetings was that 
the weavers received checks for their month's work. The 
Weavers Guild and the school P.T.A. were the only two 
organized groups in town. "Civic improvements will be a 
big issue locally in the next few years, and here are two 
groups of women beginning to realize that they can do 
things," Redding observed. (Arrow, May, 1933) 

In 1937 the Weavers Guild started the Garden 
Club. Also, by the late thirties the women were writing 
and producing plays for the summer tourists. The play 
"Store Britches" had a 17 performance season in 1941. 
Lula Mae Ogle wrote this story of life in the mountains. 
As an Arrowcraft coverlet ..weaver, she carried on the 
tradition of her mother, which probably went back many 
generations. The weavers used the profits from these 
ventures to maintain an emergency fund and to finance 
trips for the group. 

Over the years a total of seven weaving supervisors 
have worked for Arrowcraft. The most important in 
establishing an identity and charting a course for the 
weaving department was Winogene Redding. She spent 
over 20 years in the position, in three stints. Meta 
Shattschneider took over in the mid 40's and stayed for 
three years in the highest production period. Tina 
McMoran arrived in Gatlinburg in the fall of 1948 and 
presided over a time of decreased activity for the next 10 
years. Winogene returned for her final tenure of 4 years 
and was followed by two other supervisors that stayed 
only a year each. In the mid 60's Nella Hill assumed the 
head of the weaving department. A graduate of the Pi 
Beta Phi School in Gatlinburg, she worked for Arrowcraft 
in several capacities before taking over as designer. 
Nella's mother was an Arrowcraft weaver, and five of her 
seven sisters have also worked for Arrowcraft. 

Definite downsizing of the weaving department 
began under Tina McMorran. Her annual report for 1949- 
50 states: "Following instructions from Committee, after 
the last annual meeting, our department has operated on a 

13 




Winogene Redding, the Ar rower aft weaving 
supervisor for 20 years 



14 



greatly reduced budget, which I hope is showing the 
desired results." The cost control measures she 

employed included decreasing the number of weavers, 
lowering inventory and designing items that consumed 
yarns already on hand Sales could not keep pace with 
production capacity. 

During her last residence, Gene Redding increased 
both the numbers of weavers and articles woven. The 
next two supervisors also had problems resulting from low 
sales and decreased budgets. In her only year end report 
in 1965, Bess L. Mottern observed "Arrowcraft has not 
kept up with the times. Your survival depends on 
immediate change, as the craft business is a highly 
competitive business." She complained of a lack of 
freedom in designing and also questioned the wisdom of 
producing small inexpensive items rather than expanding 
into the higher end market. 

Arrowcraft has maintained integrity as a shop 
selling fine handcrafted work when almost all of 
downtown Gatlinburg has descended to offering mediocre 
tourist fare. A wide variety of crafts from throughout the 
Southeast graces the display area alongside the weaving. 
Under the direction of Nella Hill, the weaving continues 
as the only production actually supervised by Arrowcraft. 
Baby bibs, pot holders, pillows, bags, aprons, afghans, 
stoles, scarves, guest towels, napkins and place mats still 
persist as the weaving staples. Designs, patterns and 
colors continue to change, but remain within the quality 
craftsmanship standards that have made Arrow craft's 
name. 

In the early part of the century other settlement 
schools in the mountains developed crafts for the same 
reasons as the Pi Phis. As their operations grew, they felt 
the need to cooperate. Arrowcraft signed on as a charter 
member of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild at its 
organizational meeting in December of 1929. This 
federation of craft co-operatives (plus a few individual 

15 



craft producers) joined together to address common 
problems, seek broader markets, and exhibit crafts. With 
this affiliation, wholesale marketing became a new 
venture for Arrowcraft through the Allanstand Guild shop. 
In 1932, Miss Frances Goodrich transferred ownership of 
the Allanstand Cottage Industries at Asheville to the 
Guild. In 1935, under the sponsorship of the Tennessee 
Valley Authority, the formation of another organization 
took place, with the very similar name of Southern 
Highlanders, Inc. (Eventually these two organizations 
merged.) Arrowcraft bought shares in this new 
corporation, which entitled it to place products in their 
sales outlets. The construction site of the Norris Dam in 
Tennessee became the location of their first shop. A 
short-lived venture near Chattanooga and a more 
successful shop in Rockerfeller Center in New York City 
followed. 

On July 26, 1948 the Southern Highland Guild 
opened the first Craftsman's Fair. The event took place in 
tents erected on the grounds of the Pi Beta Phi School. 
Gatlinburg became a regular site for the fair, which later 
moved to an inside space. 



ARROWMONT 

In 1945 the University of Tennessee offered the 
Summer Craft Workshop in Gatlinburg with the co- 
operation of the Pi Beta Phi School. The workshops took 
place in the school's facilities, with most of the craft 
equipment transported from the University of Tennessee 
campus in Knoxville. 

Weaving occupied a major place in the course lists 
during the early years of the Summer Craft Workshop. 
The schedule offered several weaving classes divided 
among two instructors. Besides weaving, Textile 
Decoration, Recreational Crafts and Metals were among 

16 



the earliest classes available, with Craft Design, Pottery, 
Enameling and Art Related to the Home added slightly 
later. The summer school invited faculty from all over 
the country to teach in Gatlinburg. Among those who 
taught weaving was Berta Frey, well known for her articles 




The weaving class at the first Summer Craft 
Workshop in 1945 

and books on pattern weaving. Allen Eaton, who worked 
for the Russell Sage Foundation and wrote "Handicrafts of 
the Southern Highlands" was an instructor during the 
summers of 1947 through 1950. His course description 
read: 

Craft Design — Analysis of the craft field; 
historic background; social and economic 
implications; present day factors influencing 
design, techniques and productivity. 



17 



Enrollment hovered around 75 students during the 
late 40's and the 50's. Usually about half of the students 
took classes for graduate credit. This tends to confirm 
reports that the majority of students were teachers. These 
students came from at least 25 states with one or two other 
countries represented. In the 60's the pupil population 
increased to near 100. In the '70's the class format 
changed to one and two week sessions, with the total 
student enrollment figures starting in the 300's and 
growing to the mid 600's. The new facilities, no doubt, 
also accounted for the dramatic increase. The school 
continued to attract students from a wide geographic area. 

By the early 1960's Sevier County had almost taken 
over complete responsibility for elementary and high 
school education, and the Pi Phis were seeking a new 
mission for their facilities at Gatlinburg. Because of the 
success of the Summer Craft Workshop under the 
direction of University of Tennessee professor Marian 
Heard and the real need for quality instruction in crafts, 
the Fraternity decided on expansion of the craft program. 

The Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts really 
took on its individual character after Pi Beta Phi headed a 
successful campaign to provide a major studio building. 
In designing the structure the architect, Hubert Bebb took 
into consideration the specific needs and usage of the 
space. The functional and tasteful building includes 
customized art studios, an auditorium, a central art gallery, 
a book and supply store, and the administrative offices. 
The library resource center has been named to honor 
Marian Heard, who served as director through the major 
development years. The Arrowmont program has 
continued to grow under the leadership of Sandra Blain. 
She moved from the position of Assistant Director to 
Director in 1979. 

Although Arrowmont and Arrowcraft operate 
under separate Boards and are managed by separate 
directors, the profits of the shop benefit the school 

18 



program. Throughout the history of the school, the Pi 
Beta Phi Fraternity has provided concerned guidance in 
meeting the needs that they perceived. The central 
organization has given generous support, while 
individually Pi Phis contributed to their Fraternity's 
philanthropy by buying from Arrowcraft. 

The early Pi Phis came to the mountains of eastern 
Tennessee as teachers. Even though their principle 
mission was to the children, they recognized the needs of 
the family. Arrowcraft provided the women with a way to 
make money. Weaving allowed them to earn while still 
leaving them in control of their own schedules and 
permitting them to stay in their own homes while doing it. 
When the Summer Craft Workshop grew into Arrowmont, 
weaving continued as a major program component. 
Arrowcraft and Arrowmont both carry on the tradition of 
weaving in Gatlinburg. 



Bibliography 

This study was completed with information from 
the Pi Beta Phi history room and the files of Arrowcraft 
and Arrowmont, Gatlinburg, TN. Principal sources were 
the final reports from the Weaving Department of 
Arrowcraft and The Arrow , the Pi Beta Phi newsletter 
from 1910 to present. 

Barker, Garry G. The Handcraft Revival in Southern 
Appalachia . The University of Tennessee Press. 
Knoxville, TN. 1991. 



19 



Campbell, John C. The Southern Highlander & His 
Homeland . The University Press of Kentucky. 
Lexington, KY. 1969. (originally published by The 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1921) 

Eaton, Allen H. Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands . 
Dover Publications. New York, NY. 1973. (originally 
published by The Russell Sage Foundation, 1937) 

Frome, Michael. Strangers in High Places: The Story of the 
Great Smoky Mountains . The University of Tennessee 
Press. Knoxville, TN. 1980. 

Goodrich, Frances Louisa. Appalachian Mountain Homespun: 
The People and the Spinning Crafts of the Southern 
Appalachians. The Apple Press. Chester, CT. 1988. 
(originally published by Yale University Press, 1931) 

Hall, Eliza Calvert. The Book of Handwoven Coverlets . 
Dover Publications. New York, NY. 1988. (originally 
published by Little, Brown, & Co., 1912) 

Trout, Ed. and Watson, Olin. A Piece of the Smokies: a 

Pictorial History of Life in the Smoky Mountains . Printers, 
Lie. Maryville, TN. 

Trout, Ed. and Griffin, Debra. Gatlinburg, Cinderella City . 
Griffin Graphics. Pigeon Forge, TN. 1984. 

Whisnant, David E. All That Is Native and Fine: The Politics 
of Culture in an American Region . University of North 
Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, NC. 1983. 



The findings and conclusions of tliis publication do not 
necessarily represent the views of the National Endowment for 
The Humanities or those of the Tennessee and Kentucky 
Humanities Councils. 



20 



Acknowledgments 

Arrowmont School Arrowcraft 

PO Box 567 576 Parkway 

Gatliiiburg, TN 37738 Gatliiiburg, TN 37738 

615/436-5860 615/436-4606 

Recorded Interviews 

Garry Barker, Director, Student Craft Program, Berea College 

Sandra Blain, Director, Arrowmont School 

Marian Heard, Director Emeritous, Arrowmont School 

Mary Frank Helms, Weaver, Russelville, TN 

Nella Hill, Weaving Supervisor, Arrowcraft 

Loyal Jones, Director, Appalachian Studies, Berea College 

Veryl Monhollen, hiterim Manager, Arrowcraft 

Cora Morton, Arrowcraft Weaver 

Sue Ogle, Arrowcraft Weaver 

Doris Phillips, Arrowcraft Weaver 

Bemice A. Stevens, Gatliiiburg Craftsperson & Writer 

Shannon Wilson, Archivist, Berea College Library 

Special ContributJons 

Donald Alvic, PHD.., Geographer, Univ. of TN, Knoxville 

Anita Bugg, News Director, WKMS-FM, Murray, KY 

Cynthia Huff, Media Specialist at Arrowmont 

Barry Johnson, Photographer, Murray State University 

Mary Dale Swan, American Showcase, Gatliiiburg, TN 

Pi Beta Phi Fraternity 

The Staff of Arrowmont School 

The Staff of Arrowcraft 

The librarians at the Special Collections, Berea College 

The Hambidge Center, Rabun Gap, GA 






About The Author 



Philis Alvic is an artist/weaver and writer who 
maintains a studio in Murray, KY. Her loom- 
controlled, brightly colored textiles have been shown 
in juried, invitational and solo exhibitions throughout 
the country. She shares her skills and artistic 
perspective through workshops and magazine articles. 
Her degree in Art Education was conferred by The 
School of The Art Institute of Chicago and she has 
earned the Certificate of Excellence from the Hand- 
weavers Guild of America. 

With the development of the program "Mary 
Hambidge: Weaver of Rabun" in 1989 she began the 
production of a series of programs and materials 
documenting weaving in the southern Appalachian 
Mountains. 

Philis ALVIC 
1622 Miller Ave 
Murray, KY 42071